Soriz is a new strain of sorghum grains mayor created in the former USSR in the 80s of last century the Research Institute for Maize and Sorghum in Moldova (RM), by crosses gradual plant sorghum (Sorghum) grain with grass Sudan and related species in Africa. The biochemical composition and character of the grain fracture created this plant are like a grain of rice (Oryza), and therefore it was decided to name this plant - like rice, sorghum (Sorghum oryzoidum), or by combining these words - Soriz in Romanian and other languages that use Latin characters (EN, FR, ES, PT, etc.) and in languages with Cyrillic - Coриз (RU, UA, BY, KZ, etc.)
Author of the originally homologated improvement and the first hybrids of this plant and the name Soriz is the doctor of agriculture Gheorghe Moraru.
Currently there are four hybrids Soriz homologated local selection, including Porumbeni Pişcevoi 1 and 6 in RM, Porumbeni 6 and 3 Porumbeni oxamic in Ukraine and the Russian Federation. Sasmita hybrid 3 is tested by the State Commission of Moldova.
According to morphological peculiarities Soriz plant is like grain sorghum plant and is characterized by increased resistance to drought (up to 2 to 3 weeks), supports saline soils than maize and is unpretentious to soil fertility. Soriz supports high temperature air on background lengthy drought, other grasses in these conditions become fatal. In forming a unit of dry matter Soriz consumes 25-30% less moisture than maize and 1.5 less than rice.
Soriz hybrids with waist 110-140 cm grown under traditional technology of sorghum grain with the use of machinery and aggregates for growing corn. Compared to feed sorghum hybrids and varieties, Soriz have more intensive filling and drying grain and grain moisture at harvest is close to the set of approved standards. Homologated hybrids are resistant to lodging, adapt mechanized cultivation, including harvesting combines grain cereals intended for the first group.
The hybrid Pişcevoi 1 during 6 years of contest examination demonstrated productivity of 8.71 t/ha. Average production of hybrid Pişcevoi one test of RM sectors within several years was on average 6.5 t/ha. In terms of production it was proven that if cultivation and harvesting technology respects the set terms the production of soriz is like the corn, but in dry years, especially in the southern districts of Moldova it exceeds the maize harvest on 2 to 3 t/ha of grain. The harsh weather conditions in the summer of 2012, the driest in the last 60 years, the hybrid Pişcevoi 1 demonstrated production of 3.6 t/ha grain, while corn in these conditions didn't formed grains per cob.
Soriz beans are bare, without tape, white-yellow and oval. Depending on growing conditions and the specific variety, the consistency of the Soriz hybrids grains is glassy (cross glassy surface over 3/4), or half glassy (1/2 -1/3 of the surface). Weight of 1000 grains is 32-36 g, the protein content in grains from 10.5 to 13.4%, fat 3.7 to 4.05 and 65.2 to 75.6% starch. As result of the carried out researches in sectoral research institutes Soriz grains were highly appreciated as a raw material for feed concentrates, preparing different food linings, including many original and dietary.
The cereal out of Soriz beans is oval and light-yellow. The protein content is 9.4 to 10.6% (rice 6.5 to 8.5%), fat 0.2 to 0.5%, starch 82-88%. The cereal efficiency reaches 75-82%. Positive results were obtained in the manufacture of semolina from Soriz, reaching up to 60% efficiency, which due to the content of amylopectin (rice starch) and lack of gluten in perspective can successfully replace wheat semolina (yield 0.3 to 0.7 % of flour) to be widely used for infants and mature people allergic to gluten (celiac patients).
The high content of trace elements, vitamins and iodine as well as fats easily assimilated to the human body, raises the value of groats of Soriz at the highest level, contributing positively to the elimination of harmful substances from the body and reduce the content of cholesterol, which ensures reducing risks cardiovascular diseases.
In food are used whole and ground groats, meal and flour of Soriz. The cereals are cooked in water, milk or meat broth with different consistency. To accelerate cooking, groats soften or fried. Soaking in water is made at room temperature not less than 2 hours. Porridge made from groats subjected to prior softening gets a white and soft consistency. Roasting and drying is carried out in an oven in a layer of 4-5 cm at 110 -115 ° C with periodic mixing. Groats fried porridge cook faster and has a softer and crumblier consistency. Consistency depends on the ratio of liquid porridge and cereals. Friable porridge cooks the proportion of 4:1, and the viscous 5:1. The increase in the coefficient of boiling grits reach 4.9 to 5.1.
Soriz groats are rich of minerals and are useful in the preparation of various kinds of seals and food, including dietary and delicious sweets. Porridges kept in the refrigerator several days and remain crumbly consistency retains both tasty and cold and hot. This priority can successfully be used to simplify serving breakfast in kindergartens, schools, hospitals and workers near their working place, mixing them with milk or other edible components.
Positive results were obtained using the Soriz in culinary flour, baking bread (adding up to 30%), biscuits and especially for making pancakes.
The by-product after the grain refinement called powder contains up to 21% protein, 18% fat, 35% starch and is a valuable component for the manufacture of compound feed.
Positive results are obtained by using Soriz grain for feeding animals, and especially birds. Hens breded with Soriz grow healthier and lay throughout the year. Besides the production of compound feed for livestock containing increased tocopherol (youth vitamin - E) Soriz was shown advantageous for the manufacture of beer and alcohol. Proceeding from results of investigations at beer plant in Chisinau - "EFES VITANTA" based on hybrid Soriz grain feedstock in manufacture a new beer brand "ARAM " was registered in Moldova. Obtaining top quality alcohol and yield increased from a ton of Soriz beans compared to other cereals, it has been confirmed in alcohol plant in the town of Comrat. This can become a prestigious production of grain and starch that dominate amylopectin (upper fraction of starch from rice), that much better assimilate the human and animal bodies.
Quality groats, meal and flour of Soriz, and products derived from them, largely depends on the quality of the grain collected. In this connection a strict adherence to technological procedures is required, especially on the rates of fertilizers and plant protection doses admitted. Equally important is the timely implementation of measures against sparrows and mice in crop of Soriz, removing off type plants from them, harvest the grain before the arrival of rainy weather and frost, removing operative impurities vegetable harvest grain from combines and conditioning grain moisture at 13-14% standard requirements.
Compared to corn, Soriz seeds are small and therefore resembles the optimal depth of 3-4 cm binding layer wet crushing.
Monocotyledon weeds using herbicides and herbicide Stomp ground with Dual antidote and Prime extra gold, but against multi weeds and vegetation dicotyledon - herbicides 2,4-D, for example - Lontrel. To liquidate damage crops of aphids most effective preparation is New Bi-58.
In conclusion, we can say that due to its biological beneficial to the Soriz plants are in high demand and contemporary (at the period of global warming) to ensure stable operation of agriculture under frequent droughts and considering the perspective of the widespread use of primary produce of this crop in many branches of domestic production of the agroindustry sector. It is important that the grain of Soriz grown in Moldova can become in coming years a product to be exported, primarily in Arab countries and in Africa, where grain sorghum and rice from the past are traditional bread for every day for the native population.
The author of Soriz hybrids and of this publication is the head of the IGPPP, Senior Research Scientist, Doctor of agriculture G. A. Moraru.
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